Explore the world of paper trading, a risk-free way to practice buying and selling securities. Learn how to build confidence, test strategies, and make informed investment decisions without risking real money. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced trader, paper trading is your key to investment mastery.
Paper trading, also known as virtual trading or demo trading, is a practice that allows investors to learn and practice buying and selling securities without risking real money. It is a popular approach to gain investment skills and knowledge in a risk-free environment.
Investors can engage in paper trading using electronic stock market simulators or online brokerages. They can record their trades manually or use software platforms specifically designed for paper trading. This simulation method helps investors become familiar with various order types and trading strategies.
- Paper trading is a simulated trading practice without using real money.
- It allows investors to learn and practice buying and selling securities.
- Paper trading can be done using online brokerages or stock market simulators.
- It helps investors familiarize themselves with various order types and trading strategies.
- It is a risk-free approach for learning and building investment skills.
What is Paper Trading?
Paper trading, often referred to as virtual trading or demo trading, is an invaluable tool for novice and experienced investors alike. It offers a low-risk environment for honing investment skills, trying out trading strategies, and gaining the knowledge needed to navigate the complex world of securities trading without the fear of financial loss. In this article, we’ll explore the concept of paper trading in more detail, its benefits, and how investors can use this practice to enhance their investment acumen.
Understanding Paper Trading: Paper trading is essentially a simulated trading experience. Instead of using real money to buy and sell securities, investors use virtual currency to execute trades. It’s a risk-free method that allows individuals to test their strategies and build confidence before venturing into real financial markets.
How Does Paper Trading Work?
Paper trading is a valuable tool that allows investors to practice buying and selling securities without using real money. But how does paper trading actually work? It involves simulating the process of trading by making investment decisions based on market conditions, without risking any actual capital. Investors can use electronic stock market simulators or online brokerages to carry out paper trades.
During paper trading, investors can test different trading strategies and learn how to navigate trading platforms. They can familiarize themselves with various order types such as stop-loss, limit orders, and market orders. This simulated trading environment helps investors gain experience and build confidence before entering the real market.
By using paper trading, investors can develop their skills and understanding of trading without the fear of financial loss. It allows them to refine their strategies, analyze market conditions, and track their trading performance. Paper trading is a risk-free way for investors, especially beginners, to learn and practice before trading with real money.
Table: Order Types in Paper Trading
|Market Order||An order to buy or sell a security at the best available price in the market.|
|Limit Order||An order to buy or sell a security at a specified price or better.|
|Stop-Loss Order||An order to sell a security when it reaches a certain price, limiting potential losses.|
Paper trading allows investors to gain practical experience and develop strategies that can be applied to real trading scenarios. It is an essential step for investors to build their skills and confidence in the financial markets.
Why Experienced Traders and Investors Choose to Paper Trade
Experienced traders and investors may have already navigated the complexities of financial markets, but they often find significant value in paper trading as well. The reasons behind their inclination to return to simulated environments are multifaceted and can significantly benefit their overall trading strategies.
- Experimentation with New Products and Strategies: Even seasoned traders are continually seeking ways to expand their portfolios and diversify their strategies. Paper trading provides a safe space to experiment with new trading products, such as options, futures, or complex derivatives. For example, an experienced trader may have exclusively traded stocks but wishes to explore the world of forex. They can use paper trading to understand the dynamics of currency markets without risking their capital.
- Tracking Virtual Investments: Experienced traders and investors use paper trading to monitor the performance of their virtual investments in response to the financial market. This allows them to fine-tune their strategies without real financial stakes. For instance, a seasoned investor may have a diversified portfolio, and they can use paper trading to simulate how changes in the market would impact their holdings and adjust their positions accordingly.
- Enhancing Skill Sets: The financial market landscape is continually evolving, and experienced traders recognize the importance of staying up to date with the latest trends and trading techniques. Paper trading is a valuable tool for refining their skills and understanding how new approaches may work in the current market conditions. An example of this is a trader who has historically focused on long-term investments but wants to become proficient in day trading. They can use paper trading to practice quick decision-making and trade execution.
- Stress-Free Learning: Real trading comes with emotional pressures, especially when significant sums of money are at risk. Experienced traders can leverage paper trading to learn without the stress. This low-pressure environment allows them to build confidence and gather data for their strategies without the emotional ups and downs of live trading. For instance, a trader who has faced significant financial losses in the past may use paper trading to rebuild their confidence and fine-tune their approach before re-entering the live market.
- Testing Market Changes: The financial markets are influenced by a multitude of factors, including economic events, geopolitical developments, and market sentiment. Experienced traders use paper trading to test how these market changes may affect their existing strategies and positions. For example, a trader may have a bullish stance on a particular stock but wants to see how it performs under different market scenarios, such as during economic downturns or periods of heightened volatility.
- Transitioning to New Markets: Markets are interconnected, and the skills and strategies that work in one market may not necessarily translate directly to another. Seasoned traders use paper trading to ease their transition into new markets, such as foreign exchange or commodities. This allows them to understand the nuances and challenges of different markets without exposing their investments to unnecessary risk.
Experienced traders and investors recognize the value of paper trading as an ongoing learning tool. It provides a risk-free platform to explore new products, fine-tune strategies, reduce emotional pressures, and adapt to changing market conditions. Whether they are seeking to diversify their portfolios, experiment with trading approaches, or become proficient in new markets, paper trading remains an essential component of their ongoing trading journey.
Benefits of Paper Trading
Paper trading offers numerous benefits to investors, particularly those who are new to the world of trading. By participating in paper trading, individuals can gain valuable experience and knowledge without risking any real money. This risk-free environment allows investors to practice and refine their trading strategies, as well as familiarize themselves with the various aspects of the market.
One of the key advantages of paper trading is the elimination of financial loss. Since it involves simulated or fake money, investors can make mistakes and learn from them without suffering any actual monetary consequences. This makes paper trading an ideal starting point, allowing beginners to build confidence and develop their skills before venturing into real trades.
Moreover, paper trading enables investors to test different trading strategies and techniques. By experimenting with various approaches, individuals can identify what works best for them and fine-tune their trading plans accordingly. This process helps investors understand market conditions and gain insights into the potential flaws in their trading approach.
Benefits of Paper Trading
|Benefits of Paper Trading||Description|
|1. Risk-Free Learning||Practice trading strategies without the fear of losing real money.|
|2. Strategy Testing||Experiment with various approaches to identify what works best for you.|
|3. Order Type Familiarization||Become acquainted with different order types like market, limit, and stop orders.|
|4. Market Analysis Skills||Improve your ability to analyze market data, charts, and trends.|
|5. Confidence Building||Gain the confidence needed to execute real trades with sound decisions.|
|6. Emotional Control||Develop emotional discipline by practicing in a low-pressure environment.|
|7. Risk Management||Learn how to manage risk and protect your investments more effectively.|
In conclusion, the benefits of paper trading cannot be overstated. This practice provides a safe and effective way for investors to learn, practice, and refine their trading skills. By taking advantage of the risk-free environment it offers, individuals can gain valuable experience, test different strategies, and ultimately increase their chances of success when they eventually transition to live trading.
Paper Trading Platforms and Apps
When it comes to paper trading, investors have access to various platforms and apps that offer simulation environments for practicing trading strategies. These platforms and apps mimic real-time market conditions and provide a range of tools and features to enhance the trading experience.
Popular Paper Trading Platforms
There are several well-known paper trading platforms available in the market. One such platform is TD Ameritrade’s thinkorswim, which offers an advanced trading simulator with access to historical data, technical analysis tools, and a customizable trading interface. Traders can test their strategies and refine their trading skills using this comprehensive platform.
Another popular paper trading platform is TradeStation, which provides a realistic trading experience with real-time market data and advanced charting capabilities. Traders can execute trades and analyze their performance using TradeStation’s powerful trading tools.
Fidelity is also a notable paper trading platform that offers a user-friendly interface and a range of educational resources. Traders can practice trading stocks, options, and other securities using Fidelity’s platform and gain valuable insights into market dynamics and trading strategies.
Online Paper Trading Apps
In addition to dedicated platforms, there are also online paper trading apps that allow investors to practice trading on the go. These apps provide a convenient way to simulate trading activities and explore different strategies using mobile devices.
Webull is a popular online paper trading app that offers a comprehensive trading simulator with real-time market data, technical indicators, and a virtual portfolio. Traders can practice trading stocks, options, and cryptocurrencies using Webull’s intuitive app interface.
Another notable online paper trading app is TD Ameritrade’s paperMoney, which integrates with the thinkorswim platform. This app allows traders to simulate trading strategies and access a wide range of educational resources to enhance their trading skills.
|TD Ameritrade’s thinkorswim||Advanced trading simulator, historical data, technical analysis tools|
|TradeStation||Real-time market data, advanced charting capabilities|
|Fidelity||User-friendly interface, educational resources|
|Webull||Real-time market data, technical indicators, virtual portfolio|
|TD Ameritrade’s paperMoney||Simulation of trading strategies, access to educational resources|
These platforms and apps provide investors with the opportunity to simulate trading activities, test strategies, and gain confidence in their trading abilities. Whether using a dedicated platform or a mobile app, paper trading platforms and apps offer valuable tools and resources to help investors enhance their trading skills and prepare for live trading.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Paper Trading
Paper trading offers several advantages for investors looking to learn and practice trading strategies without risking real money. Here are some key advantages of paper trading:
- Eliminates Financial Risk: Paper trading allows investors to test their strategies and make investment decisions without the fear of financial loss. This risk-free environment is particularly beneficial for beginners who want to gain confidence before trading with real money.
- Practice and Testing Ground: Paper trading serves as an excellent platform for investors to practice different trading strategies and techniques. It provides an opportunity to refine their approach and evaluate the effectiveness of various trading methods.
- Building Experience and Confidence: By engaging in paper trading, investors can gain valuable experience and build confidence in their trading skills. This experience equips them with the knowledge and mindset necessary to make informed decisions in live trading scenarios.
While paper trading offers significant advantages, it also has its limitations. Here are some disadvantages to consider:
- No Real-World Costs and Emotions: Paper trading does not replicate the emotional aspects and real-world costs of live trading. Investors may not experience the same level of fear, greed, or urgency when using simulated money compared to real money on the line.
- Euphoria Trading: Some traders may take unnecessary risks in paper trading, as they know no real money is at stake. They might make choices they wouldn’t when trading with actual funds. This euphoria can lead to unrealistic expectations and potentially poor decision-making.
- Potential Overconfidence: Paper trading can sometimes create a false sense of security and overconfidence, as investors may achieve favorable results without the same level of risk associated with live trading. It’s important for investors to remain aware of this potential pitfall and approach paper trading with a realistic mindset.
- Excludes Real-World Factors: Paper trading does not consider certain factors that affect live trading, such as slippage (the difference between the expected price and the executed price) and commissions. These costs can significantly impact trading outcomes and should be considered when transitioning to live trading.
- Limited Market Impact: In paper trading, you may not fully appreciate the broader market’s impact on individual securities. Real market conditions can be influenced by various factors, and paper trading often simplifies these complexities.
- Delayed Data: Certain demo accounts use delayed or fake data, which can distort your perception of the market. It’s essential to use platforms that offer real-time data to ensure a more accurate reflection of market conditions.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Paper Trading
|Advantages of Paper Trading||Disadvantages of Paper Trading|
|– Eliminates financial risk||– No real-world costs and emotions|
|– Provides a practice and testing ground||– Potential overconfidence|
|– Helps build experience and confidence||– Excludes real-world factors|
Paper Trading vs. Live Trading
When it comes to trading, there are two main approaches that investors can take: paper trading and live trading. Paper trading, also known as trading simulation or mock trading, involves practicing trading strategies and making investment decisions without using real money. On the other hand, live trading involves using real money to buy and sell securities in the actual market.
Key Differences between Paper Trading and Live Trading
While both paper trading and live trading allow investors to make trading decisions on their own, there are several important distinctions between the two. First and foremost, paper trading eliminates the risks and rewards associated with using real money. This means that investors can practice trading strategies and test their skills without the fear of financial loss.
“Paper trading is a risk-free environment that allows investors to gain experience and build confidence before entering the live market,” says John Thompson, a seasoned investor.
Another difference between paper trading and live trading is the emotional aspect. When real money is at stake, investors may experience different emotions and may make decisions based on fear or greed. Paper trading does not replicate these emotional aspects, which can significantly impact trading behavior.
|Aspect||Paper Trading||Live Trading|
|Real Money Risk||No actual money is at risk, as it uses virtual currency.||Involves real money and the potential for gains and losses.|
|Learning and Practice||Ideal for learning, practicing, and refining trading skills without financial consequences.||Requires previous knowledge and involves real financial stakes.|
|Emotion Control||Helps develop emotional discipline by trading in a low-pressure environment.||Real trading can be emotionally challenging, leading to impulsive decisions.|
|Order Execution||Provides experience with order types, but execution doesn’t impact the market.||Order execution affects real market prices and may cause slippage.|
|Risk Management||Traders can experiment with different risk management strategies without losing money.||Effective risk management is crucial to protect capital and limit losses.|
|Market Analysis||Allows for honing technical and fundamental analysis skills without pressure.||Real-time market analysis is crucial to make informed trading decisions.|
|Performance Evaluation||Portfolio performance is based on paper gains/losses and doesn’t affect financial well-being.||Live performance directly influences financial outcomes and wealth.|
|Confidence Building||Builds trader confidence and provides a foundation for transitioning to live trading.||Confidence is often built through experience and successful live trades.|
Which Approach is Better?
Both paper trading and live trading have their advantages and disadvantages. Paper trading allows investors to practice and refine their trading strategies, build experience, and gain confidence without the risk of financial loss. However, it does not replicate the real-world costs and emotions of live trading. Live trading, on the other hand, requires investors to manage risks and make real-time decisions based on market conditions.
Ultimately, the effectiveness of each approach depends on the individual investor’s goals and circumstances. Paper trading can be a valuable tool for learning and honing trading skills, while live trading provides the opportunity to apply those skills in a real-world setting. Some investors may choose to combine both approaches, using paper trading to test strategies and live trading to gain experience with real money on the line.
In conclusion, paper trading and live trading are two distinct approaches to trading, each with its own set of benefits and limitations. Whether an investor chooses to paper trade or live trade depends on their goals, risk tolerance, and level of experience. By understanding the differences between the two and using them effectively, investors can enhance their trading skills and make informed decisions in the market.
How Effective is Paper Trading?
Paper trading is an effective method for investors to learn and practice trading strategies without risking real money. By simulating real market conditions, paper trading provides a risk-free environment for investors to gain experience and build confidence. It allows investors to test out new trading strategies, tools, and techniques before using actual capital.
One of the key advantages of paper trading is that it helps investors analyze their trading performance. By tracking and evaluating their trades, investors can identify their strengths and weaknesses, and make necessary adjustments. This self-reflection is essential for improving trading skills and making informed decisions when transitioning to live trading.
However, it is important to note that paper trading should closely simulate actual trading to be effective. While it eliminates the risk of financial loss, it is crucial for investors to treat paper trading seriously and avoid developing unrealistic expectations. This means considering factors such as slippage, commissions, and market correlation that may not be accurately reflected in paper trading simulations.
“Paper trading is a valuable tool for investors to develop their trading skills and understanding of the market. By treating it seriously and using it as a learning tool, investors can improve their trading performance and make informed decisions when trading with real money.”
Ways to Paper Trade
Paper trading offers investors various methods to practice trading strategies and gain experience without using real money. Here are some popular ways to paper trade:
- Manual Recording: Investors can start by manually recording their buying and selling decisions on paper or using spreadsheets. This approach allows for easy customization and analysis of trades.
- Online Trading Simulators: Many brokers provide online trading simulators that mimic real trading platforms. These simulators offer virtual accounts with simulated money and real-time market data, allowing investors to practice trading in a realistic environment.
- Technical Chart Challenge: Another approach is to have a friend or spouse pick a technical chart, and the investor chooses where to buy and sell based on that chart. This method helps investors test their decision-making skills and evaluate their ability to interpret market trends.
Regardless of the chosen method, it is important for investors to treat paper trading seriously and simulate actual trading conditions as closely as possible to ensure accurate results and meaningful practice.
By utilizing these various ways to paper trade, investors can develop their trading skills, test different strategies, and gain confidence before venturing into live trading.
Paper Trading Providers
Many brokers and trading platforms offer paper trading accounts or simulators for investors to practice trading. These platforms provide virtual accounts with simulated money and allow investors to use the same trading software as real-money players. Some popular paper trading providers include Webull, TD Ameritrade’s paperMoney, and Interactive Brokers. These platforms offer a realistic trading experience and help investors prepare for live trading.
Webull is a popular paper trading platform that offers a user-friendly interface and real-time market data. It allows investors to practice trading stocks, options, and ETFs with virtual money. TD Ameritrade’s paperMoney is another well-known provider that offers a comprehensive paper trading experience. It provides access to advanced trading tools, risk analysis, and historical market data. Interactive Brokers also offers a paper trading account that allows investors to practice trading stocks, options, futures, and forex.
These paper trading providers offer a range of features and tools to help investors practice trading and refine their strategies. They provide access to real-time market data, analytical tools, and educational resources. Investors can test different trading strategies, practice executing trades, and track their performance. By utilizing paper trading accounts, investors can gain valuable experience and confidence before venturing into live trading with real money.
|Webull||A user-friendly paper trading platform with real-time market data.|
|TD Ameritrade’s paperMoney||A comprehensive paper trading experience with advanced tools and risk analysis.|
|Interactive Brokers||A paper trading account for stocks, options, futures, and forex.|
These paper trading providers play a crucial role in helping investors practice trading and gain hands-on experience without the risk of financial loss. With the availability of virtual accounts and simulated money, investors can explore different investment strategies and learn how to navigate trading platforms effectively. By utilizing paper trading accounts, investors can enhance their trading skills, build confidence, and make more informed decisions when they are ready to trade with real money.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Paper Trading
Paper trading offers several advantages that make it an attractive option for investors looking to learn and practice trading strategies. One of the main benefits is the elimination of financial risk. Since paper trading uses simulated or fake money, investors can trade without the fear of losing real capital. This risk-free environment allows beginners to gain confidence and experiment with different trading techniques before diving into live trading.
Another advantage of paper trading is the opportunity to test and refine trading strategies. Investors can try out different approaches, such as technical analysis or fundamental analysis, and see how they perform in simulated market conditions. This experimentation helps in identifying which strategies work best for each individual investor’s risk appetite and investment goals.
Furthermore, paper trading allows investors to track and analyze their trades. By recording all buying and selling decisions, investors can review their performance, identify strengths and weaknesses, and make necessary adjustments to improve their trading approach. This analysis helps investors develop a better understanding of market conditions and refine their decision-making process.
“Paper trading offers the advantage of risk-free practice and allows investors to gain experience and build confidence.”
|Advantages of Paper Trading||Disadvantages of Paper Trading|
|1. Risk-Free Learning||1. Lack of Emotional Impact|
|2. Strategy Testing||2. Unrealistic Emotional Control|
|3. Order Type Familiarization||3. Limited Real Market Experience|
|4. Market Analysis Skills||4. No Real Profit or Loss|
|5. Confidence Building||5. May Not Fully Reflect Real Market Conditions|
|6. Emotional Control||6. Possible Overconfidence|
|7. Risk Management||7. Limited Market Timing Experience|
Making the Most of Paper Trading
Paper trading is a valuable resource for traders and investors of all levels, offering a risk-free environment to develop and fine-tune their skills. To maximize the benefits of paper trading, here are some key strategies and practices that can help traders and investors make full and effective use of this valuable learning tool.
Set Realistic Goals: Before embarking on paper trading, it’s essential to define your goals. Whether you’re a beginner looking to learn the basics or an experienced trader testing new strategies, having clear objectives will guide your paper trading journey. For instance, if you’re new to trading, your goal might be to understand how different order types work, while an experienced trader could aim to perfect a specific trading strategy.
Realism is Key: To reap the most benefits from paper trading, it’s crucial to replicate real trading conditions as closely as possible. This means using a simulated account balance that mirrors the amount of capital you intend to trade with in real life. By keeping it realistic, you can better assess how your strategies would perform when actual money is at stake.
Maintain Discipline: Just like in live trading, discipline is paramount in paper trading. Stick to your trading plan, manage your risk, and avoid making impulsive decisions. For instance, if you’ve set a stop-loss level in your strategy, ensure you stick to it during paper trading, even if the trade is in profit. This discipline can prevent reckless decision-making when transitioning to live trading.
Keep Records: Detailed record-keeping is vital. Document your paper trades, including entry and exit points, investment theses, and thought processes behind your decisions. These records can serve as valuable references when analyzing your progress and evaluating your strategies. Having a trade journal will provide insights into what works and what doesn’t.
Learn from Mistakes: Don’t be afraid to make mistakes in paper trading. In fact, this is precisely the place to make them. Whether it’s misjudging market conditions or making a poor entry decision, each mistake is a learning opportunity. Reflect on your errors, analyze what went wrong, and use these experiences to refine your strategies.
Experiment and Explore: Paper trading is an excellent environment to experiment with different trading products, strategies, and approaches. For example, if you’ve been trading stocks, use paper trading to try your hand at options or explore a completely new asset class like cryptocurrencies. It’s the ideal setting to broaden your trading horizons.
Practice Order Types: Understanding various order types is fundamental to trading success. Use paper trading to practice placing different types of orders, such as market orders, limit orders, and stop orders. Familiarizing yourself with these order types ensures you can execute trades precisely as intended when you transition to live trading.
Test Under Various Conditions: Don’t limit your paper trading to just one market condition. Experiment with different scenarios, such as bull markets, bear markets, and high volatility. By testing your strategies under various conditions, you’ll be better prepared for the unpredictability of the live market.
Embrace Continuous Learning: Paper trading is not a one-time exercise. It should be an ongoing part of your trading journey. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced trader, always strive to expand your knowledge, adapt to market changes, and stay up to date with new trading techniques. Continual learning and improvement are key to long-term success.
Transition Gradually: When you feel confident and consistent with your paper trading results, consider transitioning to live trading. Start with a small amount of capital to minimize risk and gradually increase your exposure as you gain experience and confidence.
Paper trading is a valuable tool for investors to enhance their trading practice without the risk of financial loss. By engaging in virtual trading or demo trading, investors can gain essential experience and confidence before entering live trading. This simulated approach allows them to test different strategies, understand market dynamics, and familiarize themselves with trading platforms, order types, and various techniques.
While paper trading may have its limitations, such as not replicating real-world costs and emotions, it serves as an effective means to build trading skills and knowledge. By taking demo trading seriously and using it as a learning tool, investors can improve their trading performance and make more informed decisions when they eventually begin trading with real money. It offers a risk-free environment to practice and refine trading strategies, identify strengths and weaknesses, and adjust their approach accordingly.
Virtual trading provides a safe space for investors, especially beginners, to gain hands-on experience and understand the intricacies of the market. It is essential to approach paper trading with dedication and treat it as a stepping stone towards live trading. By incorporating the lessons learned from demo trading, investors can better navigate the complexities of the financial markets and improve their chances of success.
What is paper trading?
Paper trading is a simulated trading practice that allows investors to learn and practice buying and selling securities without risking real money.
How does paper trading work?
Paper trading involves simulating the process of buying and selling stocks and other securities without using real money. Investors practice making investment decisions, test different trading strategies, and familiarize themselves with order types and trading platforms.
What are the benefits of paper trading?
Paper trading eliminates the risk of financial loss and allows investors to practice trading without using real money. It helps investors test and choose the best trading strategies, build experience and confidence, and analyze and track their trades.
What are some popular paper trading platforms?
Some popular paper trading platforms include TD Ameritrade’s thinkorswim, TradeStation, and Fidelity.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of paper trading?
The main advantage of paper trading is that it eliminates the risk of financial loss and allows investors to practice trading without using real money. However, it may provide a false sense of security and does not replicate the real-world costs and emotions of live trading.
What is the difference between paper trading and live trading?
Paper trading allows investors to practice trading without using real money, while live trading involves using real capital and managing risks in real-time.
How effective is paper trading?
Paper trading can be very effective as it allows investors to test out new trading strategies and techniques before using real money. However, it is important to simulate actual trading as closely as possible to get the most accurate results.
How can I start paper trading?
There are several ways to paper trade, such as writing down buying and selling decisions on paper, using online trading simulators offered by brokers, or using paper trading accounts provided by trading platforms.
What are some popular paper trading providers?
Some popular paper trading providers include Webull, TD Ameritrade’s paperMoney, and Interactive Brokers.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of paper trading?
Paper trading offers advantages such as no risk of financial loss, the ability to practice trading and test strategies, and the opportunity to build confidence and gain experience. However, it also has limitations such as not replicating the real-world costs and emotions of live trading.