Understanding What is Mean Reversion Trading – Financial Markets Strategy

Familiarise yourself with the financial markets with a blog exploring the intricacies of mean reversion trading. Discover how assets gravitate towards historical averages, unlocking strategies that savvy investors employ for market advantage. Unravel the essence of mean reversion and its profound impact on trading dynamics.

Mean reversion trading is a financial strategy that traders and investors use to identify potential opportunities in the market. It is based on the concept that asset prices and volatility of returns tend to revert to their long-term average levels over time. This means that if a price has deviated significantly from its historical mean, it is likely to move back towards that average.

Key Takeaways:

  • Mean reversion trading is a strategy used by traders and investors to capitalise on asset prices that have deviated significantly from their historical mean.
  • This strategy is based on the belief that asset prices and historical returns will eventually return to their long-term average levels.
  • Traders use tools and indicators like moving averages, RSI, and bollinger bands to identify potential mean reversion opportunities.
  • Mean reversion strategies can be applied to different trading styles, including day trading, swing trading, and forex trading.
  • Implementing a well-defined mean reversion trading strategy based on individual financial goals and risk tolerance is crucial for success in financial markets.

What is Mean Reversion Trading

Mean reversion trading can be applied to various financial markets, including stocks and forex. Traders and investors use different tools and indicators. Examples are moving averages, the relative strength index (RSI), and bollinger bands, to identify potential mean reversion opportunities. These tools help them determine when a security’s price has deviated significantly from its mean, indicating a potential trading opportunity.

Mean reversion trading strategies can be used in different trading styles, including day trading, swing trading, and forex trading. Traders use various techniques and indicators to capitalise on short-term price fluctuations and identify potential reversals in price trends.

Understanding Mean Reversion: A Comprehensive Insight into Financial Dynamics

Mean reversion is a fundamental concept in financial markets, influencing trading strategies across various asset classes. This theory is posited that after experiencing extreme price movements. Such as when asset prices tend to revert to their historical mean or average over time. Delving into the intricacies of mean reversion provides traders and investors with valuable insights into market dynamics.

The Core Principle of Mean Reversion

At its core, mean reversion suggests that deviations from the historical mean are temporary. Additionally, that prices will eventually return to their long-term average. This principle applies not only to asset prices but extends to other financial indicators. Some examples are volatility, earnings, and technical indicators. Understanding this principle is crucial for traders seeking to identify opportune moments for buying or selling assets.

Practical Example – Asset Prices

Consider a stock whose current market price has experienced a significant surge, deviating from its historical average. Mean reversion theory suggests that, over time, this overvaluation is likely to correct itself. This is seen to happen as the price returns to its long-term mean. Traders employing mean reversion strategies may seize the opportunity to sell the asset during this overvalued phase, anticipating a subsequent return to more sustainable price levels.

Mean Reversion Strategies in Action

Traders utilising mean reversion often employ statistical analysis and various strategies to capitalise on market inefficiencies. For instance, the use of Z-scores enables traders to quantify how far an asset’s price has deviated from its mean. If the Z-score exceeds certain thresholds, such as 1.5 or -1.5, it may signal an opportunity for traders to enter the market, anticipating a reversion to the mean.

Pairs Trading as a Mean Reversion Strategy

Another practical application of mean reversion is in pairs trading. Traders identify two correlated assets and monitor their price ratio. When the ratio deviates significantly from its mean, traders may opt to go long on the undervalued asset and short the overvalued one. This strategy leverages the belief that the price ratio will eventually revert to its historical average.

Volatility as an Indicator

Volatility, often considered a measure of market uncertainty, is also subject to mean reversion. Traders may observe periods of heightened volatility and anticipate a return to more stable conditions. Buying options during high volatility with the expectation of a reversion to the mean is a common mean reversion strategy employed by investors.

Risk Management and Algorithmic Trading

Beyond individual strategies, mean reversion plays a crucial role in risk management. Setting stop-loss orders and take-profit points around the mean helps traders manage potential losses and secure gains. Moreover, quantitative analysts incorporate mean reversion into algorithmic trading strategies, using sophisticated mathematical models to predict and capitalise on price movements.

Considerations for Effective Mean Reversion

Traders must consider factors like time horizon and market conditions for effective mean reversion strategies. The effectiveness of these strategies can vary based on whether one is a short-term trader using intraday data or a long-term investor relying on yearly data. Additionally, mean reversion tends to be more effective in range-bound markets compared to trending markets.

In summary, understanding mean reversion is paramount for navigating the complexities of financial markets. Armed with the knowledge of this theory, traders can develop effective strategies to identify opportunities, manage risks, and make informed decisions in the dynamic world of trading.

Mean Reversion Strategies: Tactical Approaches for Trading Success

Mean reversion, a cornerstone in trading theory, offers a plethora of strategies for traders and investors across diverse asset classes. Understanding and implementing these strategies can be pivotal in capitalising on market inefficiencies and identifying opportune entry and exit points.

Statistical Analysis for Precise Timing

One widely adopted mean reversion strategy involves statistical analysis, specifically through Z-scores. Traders employ statistical tools to measure how far an asset’s price has deviated from its mean. A Z-score above 1.5 or below -1.5 might signal a trading opportunity. This method aids in precise timing, allowing traders to enter the market when the deviation is significant.

Example:
Suppose a stock’s price experiences a sharp decline, resulting in a Z-score below -1.5. Traders employing statistical analysis may interpret this as an indication that the stock is undervalued and poised for a reversion to the mean, prompting them to consider a strategic entry point.

Pairs Trading: Leveraging Correlated Assets

Pairs trading is another potent mean reversion strategy. Traders identify two correlated assets and monitor their price ratio. When the ratio deviates from its mean, traders go long on the undervalued asset and short the overvalued one. This strategy capitalises on the belief that the price ratio will eventually revert to its historical average.

Example:
Consider two stocks in the same industry with historically correlated prices. If one stock’s price experiences a significant increase, causing a deviation in the price ratio, traders may implement pairs trading by selling the overvalued stock and buying the undervalued one, anticipating a reversion to the mean in the price ratio.

Volatility-Based Strategies: Navigating Market Uncertainty

Volatility, a key aspect of financial markets, is subject to mean reversion. Traders may employ mean reversion strategies in the context of volatility by buying options during periods of high volatility. The expectation is that volatility will revert to its mean, presenting an opportunity for profitable trades.

Example:
During a period of economic uncertainty, market volatility spikes. Traders using volatility-based mean reversion strategies might purchase options with the anticipation that the heightened volatility will subside, leading to a reversion to the historical mean.

Risk Management through Stop-Loss and Take-Profit

Incorporating mean reversion into risk management is crucial for traders. Setting stop-loss orders and take-profit points around the mean allows for effective management of potential losses and securing gains. This strategy provides a structured approach to navigate market fluctuations.

Example:
A trader who identifies an overbought asset using mean reversion analysis may set a stop-loss order slightly above the mean to limit potential losses. Conversely, a take-profit point could be strategically placed slightly below the mean to secure gains when the asset reverts.

Algorithmic Trading: Utilising Complex Models

Quantitative analysts often incorporate mean reversion into algorithmic trading strategies. These strategies rely on complex mathematical models to predict price movements and capitalise on deviations from the mean. Algorithmic trading enhances efficiency and automation in implementing mean reversion strategies.

Example:
An algorithmic trading model using mean reversion might analyse historical price data, calculate deviations from the mean, and execute trades automatically when specific thresholds are met. This ensures a systematic approach to mean reversion trading.

Considerations for Optimal Effectiveness

Traders must consider their time horizon and prevailing market conditions when employing mean reversion strategies. Short-term traders may leverage intraday data, while long-term investors may rely on yearly data for a comprehensive perspective. Additionally, mean reversion tends to be more effective in range-bound markets compared to trending markets.

In conclusion, mean reversion strategies offer a diverse toolkit for traders, ranging from statistical analysis to algorithmic trading. Mastering these strategies allows traders to navigate market fluctuations with precision, making informed decisions based on deviations from historical averages.

Calculating Mean Reversion: Unveiling the Statistical Alchemy of Market Analysis

Understanding how to calculate mean reversion is paramount for traders aiming to harness its predictive power in financial markets. This process involves a series of statistical and quantitative steps, offering insights into an asset’s deviation from its historical mean and its potential to revert to the average.

Gathering Historical Price Data

The first step in calculating mean reversion involves collecting historical price data for the specific asset under consideration. The chosen time frame for this data collection depends on the trader’s time horizon and the desired level of analysis – whether intraday for short-term traders or yearly for long-term investors.

Example:
For a stock trader analysing mean reversion on a daily basis, historical price data spanning several months or years would be collected. This data forms the foundation for computing the mean and subsequent deviations.

Computing the Mean

Once historical price data is assembled, the mean, or average price, is calculated over the selected time frame. The mean serves as a reference point, representing the expected equilibrium price for the asset.

Example:
For a given set of daily closing prices, the mean would be computed as the sum of these prices divided by the total number of observations. This mean becomes the central point around which price deviations are analysed.

Calculating Deviations

With the mean established, the next step is to calculate the deviation for each individual price point from the computed mean. This deviation represents how far each price is from the historical average.

Example:
If a stock’s closing price on a specific day is higher than the mean, the deviation would be positive, indicating an overvaluation. Conversely, a closing price below the mean would result in a negative deviation, signalling undervaluation.

Determining Standard Deviation for Volatility

To grasp the volatility of the asset’s price series, the standard deviation is computed. This measure quantifies the spread of price points around the mean, providing insights into the historical volatility of the asset.

Example:
A stock with high volatility would exhibit a larger standard deviation, indicating that its prices have fluctuated significantly from the mean. This volatility becomes a key consideration in mean reversion analysis.

Calculating the Z-Score for Quantitative Measurement

The Z-score, a crucial metric in mean reversion analysis, is determined by dividing the deviation by the standard deviation. This score measures how many standard deviations an element is from the mean, providing a quantitative measurement of the asset’s relative valuation.

Example:
If the Z-score is above a certain threshold, say 1.5 or 2, it may indicate that the asset is overvalued. Conversely, a Z-score below a certain threshold, like -1.5 or -2, may suggest undervaluation.

Utilising Z-Scores for Trading Signals

Traders often use Z-scores as trading signals. A Z-score above the specified threshold may signal an opportunity to sell or short the asset, anticipating a reversion to the mean. Conversely, a Z-score below the threshold might indicate a buying opportunity.

Example:
If a currency pair in forex trading has a Z-score of -2, traders may interpret this as an indication that the pair is significantly undervalued, prompting them to consider a long position in anticipation of a reversion to its historical mean.

Mean Reversion in Technical Analysis

Mean reversion is deeply embedded in technical analysis, serving as the foundation for various indicators and trading strategies. Technical tools such as Bollinger Bands®, regression channels, Keltner channels, and Envelopes each incorporate mean reversion principles to notify traders about extreme price levels and potential reversion points.

Example:
Bollinger Bands® use standard deviation to measure how far away the price is from the mean. The wider the bands, the more likely the price is to revert to the mean, providing traders with signals for potential entry or exit points.

Visual Representation with Moving Averages

On an asset’s trading chart, the mean is often represented by a simple moving average (SMA). The SMA calculates the average price in the price series, illustrating how prices tend to oscillate around the average and eventually revert to it.

Example:
A chart depicting the Euro 50 stock index oscillating around its 50-week SMA over a five-year period visually demonstrates mean reversion. During periods of deviation, traders may anticipate a reversion as prices approach the moving average.

In conclusion, calculating mean reversion involves a meticulous analysis of historical price data, statistical computations, and the utilisation of key metrics like Z-scores. This process equips traders with the tools to identify potential trading opportunities based on deviations from historical averages and anticipate reversion to the mean in financial markets.

Technical Indicators, Mean Reversion, and Considerations

Technical Indicators and Mean Reversion

Mean Reversion in Technical Analysis:
Technical analysis relies on mean reversion as a fundamental principle, guiding the use of various indicators to identify potential entry and exit points in financial markets. These indicators play a pivotal role in assessing overbought or oversold conditions, helping traders make informed decisions based on deviations from historical averages.

Example:
Moving Averages: Traders commonly use moving averages to identify the mean price over a specific period. When an asset’s price is above the moving average and over a certain threshold, it may be considered overbought. Conversely, when the price is below the moving average and under a certain threshold, it may be deemed oversold. Traders utilise these signals to anticipate a reversion to the mean.

Bollinger Bands®: The Bollinger Bands technical analysis indicator consists of a middle band (simple moving average) and two outer bands calculated using the standard deviation. Prices are expected to revert to the middle band, providing traders with signals for potential mean reversion opportunities.

Relative Strength Index (RSI): RSI, ranging from 0 to 100, is used to identify overbought and oversold conditions. An RSI above 70 suggests overbought conditions, while below 30 suggests oversold conditions, both implying a potential mean reversion.

Stochastic Oscillator: This indicator compares a security’s closing price to its price range over a specific period. Values in the stochastic oscillator above 80 are considered overbought, and values below 20 are considered oversold, indicating potential mean reversion scenarios.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD): MACD identifies changes in the strength, direction, momentum, and duration of a trend. When the MACD crosses above or below its signal, it can be a sign that the asset is deviating from its mean, presenting opportunities for mean reversion trades.

Risks and Considerations

Effectiveness and Market Dynamics:

While mean reversion is a prevalent concept, its effectiveness can vary based on factors such as time horizon and market conditions. Short-term traders may use intraday data, while long-term investors may rely on yearly data for comprehensive analysis. It is essential to consider the prevailing market dynamics as mean reversion tends to be more effective in range-bound markets compared to trending markets.

Example:
In a range-bound market, where prices fluctuate within a certain range, mean reversion strategies may yield more consistent results. However, in a trending market where prices exhibit a prolonged upward or downward movement, mean reversion strategies may be less effective as the deviation from the mean may persist.

Limitations of Mean Reversion:

While mean reversion is a powerful concept, traders must acknowledge its limitations. A price rising away from the average does not guarantee an immediate fall, and external factors can lead to a re-rating of prices. This is particularly relevant with high-risk small-cap companies when a catalyst leads to sustained price movements.

Example:
Suppose a small-cap company experiences a long-awaited positive catalyst, causing its stock price to rise significantly. In such cases, the mean may shift upwards, reflecting the new average. Traders need to be cautious and adapt their strategies to changing market conditions.

Dynamic Nature of the Mean:

It’s crucial to recognise that the mean is not static; it evolves over time. If the price stalls and doesn’t move much, the mean has time to catch up. This, too, constitutes a form of mean reversion as the price hovers around the evolving average.

Example:
A stock exhibiting low volatility may not experience an immediate reversion to the historical mean. Instead, the mean gradually adjusts to the price’s current level, emphasising the dynamic nature of mean reversion.

The integration of technical indicators enhances the application of mean reversion in trading, providing valuable signals for traders. However, it is essential to consider associated risks and market dynamics to effectively navigate the complexities of financial markets. Mean reversion, while a powerful tool, should be used judiciously with an awareness of its limitations and the ever-evolving nature of market averages.

Key Features of Mean Reversion Trading

Mean reversion trading strategies aim to capitalise on extreme price changes in a security by assuming that it will eventually revert to its previous state. This approach is employed by investors to take advantage of asset prices that have deviated significantly from their historical means. Mean reversion trading can be implemented using various strategies, including statistical analysis, pairs trading, volatility trading, risk management, and algorithmic trading.

Trading Strategies in Mean Reversion

One of the important considerations in mean reversion trading is the time horizon and market conditions. The effectiveness of a mean reversion strategy can vary based on the chosen time frame. Short-term traders may use intraday data for quick trades, while long-term investors may rely on yearly data for more comprehensive analysis.

Mean reversion trading is most effective in range-bound markets where prices tend to fluctuate within a specific range. It may be less successful in trending markets where asset prices exhibit strong directional movements. Therefore, understanding market volatility and conducting trend analysis are crucial aspects of successful mean reversion trading.

To implement mean reversion trading strategies effectively, traders often rely on statistical arbitrage techniques and advanced trading algorithms. These tools help identify potential opportunities and automate the process of executing trades based on the mean reversion principle.

Here are some key features of mean reversion trading:

  • Capitalising on extreme price changes in a security
  • Assuming that prices will revert to their historical means
  • Using various strategies such as statistical analysis, pairs trading, volatility trading, risk management, and algorithmic trading
  • Considering time horizon and market conditions for optimal strategy implementation
  • Being effective in range-bound markets and less successful in trending markets
  • Utilising tools like statistical arbitrage and trading algorithms for enhanced trading performance
Benefits of Mean Reversion TradingStrategies for Mean Reversion TradingPrinciples of Mean Reversion TradingSuccessful Mean Reversion Trading Techniques
Capitalising on extreme price changesStatistical analysis, pairs trading, volatility trading, risk management, algorithmic tradingAssuming prices will revert to their historical meansUtilising statistical arbitrage, trading algorithms
Optimal strategy implementation based on time horizon and market conditionsEffective in range-bound markets, less successful in trending markets
Identification of potential opportunities, automated trade execution

Technical Analysis Tools for Mean Reversion Trading

Mean reversion is a prominent concept in technical analysis, serving as the underlying principle for various indicators and trading strategies. It helps traders identify overbought or oversold conditions, thereby providing potential entry and exit points.

Technical analysis tools commonly used in mean reversion trading include:

Technical Analysis ToolsDescription
Moving AveragesUsed to smoothen out price data and identify trends by calculating the average price over a specified period.
Bollinger BandsConsist of three lines that represent moving averages and measure volatility. Traders use them to identify potential mean reversion trade opportunities when the price moves outside the bands.
Relative Strength Index (RSI)Measures the speed and change of price movements. Traders often use RSI to identify overbought or oversold conditions and potential mean reversion trades.
Stochastic OscillatorMeasures the momentum of price movements and identifies potential overbought or oversold conditions.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)Consists of two lines that represent different moving averages and measures the relationship between them. Traders use MACD to identify potential mean reversion opportunities when the lines converge or diverge.

These tools assist traders in identifying when a security’s price has deviated significantly from its mean, indicating a potential mean reversion trade.

Mean Reversion Strategies in Different Trading Styles

Mean reversion strategies can be applied to various trading styles, catering to different time horizons and goals. Whether you’re a day trader, swing trader, or forex trader, mean reversion techniques can help identify potential opportunities in the market.

Day Trading

Day traders aim to capitalise on short-term price fluctuations and often employ mean reversion strategies to identify overbought or oversold conditions. By using indicators like moving averages, RSI, and stochastic oscillators, day traders can spot deviations from the mean and take advantage of quick price reversals.

Swing Trading

Swing traders operate on a longer time frame, looking for medium-term price trends and reversals. They utilise longer-term moving averages and indicators like RSI and MACD to identify potential reversals in price trends. Mean reversion strategies are often used by swing traders to identify when a stock or forex pair deviates significantly from its average, indicating a potential trade opportunity.

Forex Trading

Forex traders use mean reversion strategies to identify short-term opportunities in currency pairs. By analysing technical indicators such as moving averages, RSI, and pivot points, forex traders can spot deviations from the mean and anticipate price reversals. Mean reversion techniques are particularly useful in the volatile forex market, allowing traders to take advantage of short-term price fluctuations.

Each trading style requires a unique approach to mean reversion, taking into account the time frame, market conditions, and suitable technical indicators. By tailoring mean reversion strategies to individual trading styles, traders can increase their chances of success in the dynamic financial markets.

Applying Mean Reversion in Financial Markets

Mean reversion strategies can be applied to various financial markets, including stocks, forex, and other trading instruments. Traders and investors can use mean reversion algorithms and quantitative models to analyse market data and predict price movements. Market analysis techniques such as regression lines, moving averages, and technical indicators like MACD and Bollinger Bands can help identify potential mean reversion opportunities in financial markets.

By applying a mean reversion algorithm, traders can make informed decisions based on historical price patterns and statistical analysis. This allows them to identify when a security’s price has deviated significantly from its mean, indicating a potential mean reversion trade. Implementing a well-defined mean reversion trading strategy is essential for maximising profits and minimising risk.

One popular mean reversion trading strategy is to buy an asset when its price is significantly below its mean and sell it when the price reverts back to the mean. This strategy takes advantage of the natural tendency of asset prices to return to their long-term average levels.

Market analysis plays a crucial role in mean reversion trading. Traders need to analyse market trends, identify potential entry and exit points, and determine the optimal time horizon for their trades. Technical indicators, such as MACD and Bollinger Bands, can provide valuable insights into the market’s volatility and help traders make informed decisions.

Example Mean Reversion Trading Strategy

“A trader analyses the stock prices of Company XYZ using a mean reversion strategy. The trader identifies that the stock has recently experienced a sharp decline, deviating significantly from its historical mean. Based on this analysis, the trader decides to buy the stock with the expectation that it will revert back to its mean. After a period of time, the stock price indeed rises, reaching its average level. The trader then sells the stock, making a profit from the mean reversion trade.”

Successful mean reversion trading requires careful analysis, continuous monitoring of market conditions, and the use of effective trading indicators. Traders need to adapt their strategies to different asset classes and market environments to increase their chances of success.

Financial MarketMean Reversion Strategies
StocksIdentify oversold stocks with potential for mean reversion
Use technical indicators like RSI and Bollinger Bands to determine entry and exit points
ForexApply mean reversion strategies to currency pairs
Utilise moving averages and pivot points for analysis
Trading InstrumentsUse quantitative models and algorithms to identify mean reversion opportunities
Analyse market data to predict price movements

Overall, mean reversion trading can be a valuable strategy for traders and investors in financial markets. By understanding market dynamics, applying the right trading indicators, and executing a well-defined strategy, traders can increase their chances of capitalising on mean reversion opportunities and achieving their financial goals.

Conclusion

Mean reversion trading is a widely used strategy in financial markets to capitalise on the tendency of asset prices to revert to their long-term average levels. Traders and investors employ various techniques and tools, such as moving averages, technical indicators, and quantitative models, to identify potential mean reversion opportunities.

While mean reversion can be an effective trading strategy, its success depends on considering factors such as time horizon and market volatility. It is important for traders to tailor their mean reversion strategy to their individual financial goals and risk tolerance.

Incorporating market analysis techniques, such as regression lines and technical indicators like MACD and Bollinger Bands, can help traders identify potential mean reversion opportunities in financial markets. However, it is crucial to note that mean reversion is more effective in range-bound markets and less so in trending markets.

Overall, implementing a well-defined mean reversion trading strategy and staying informed about market conditions is vital for achieving success in financial markets. By leveraging mean reversion, traders can increase their chances of profiting from asset price movements and making informed trading decisions.

FAQ

What is mean reversion trading?

Mean reversion trading is a financial strategy that involves capitalising on the tendency of asset prices and volatility of returns to eventually revert to their long-term average levels.

How does mean reversion trading work?

Mean reversion trading involves identifying assets that have deviated significantly from their historical mean and taking positions based on the expectation that prices will revert back to the mean over time.

What are the benefits of mean reversion trading?

Mean reversion trading allows traders and investors to potentially profit from market inefficiencies and the tendency of prices to return to their average levels. It can be used for timing trading and investment strategies.

What are some strategies for mean reversion trading?

Some common strategies for mean reversion trading include statistical analysis, pairs trading, volatility trading, risk management, and algorithmic trading.

What are some indicators used in mean reversion trading?

Common indicators used in mean reversion trading include moving averages, the relative strength index (RSI), Bollinger Bands, and the stochastic oscillator.

What are the principles of mean reversion trading?

The principles of mean reversion trading involve identifying assets that have deviated significantly from their historical mean, understanding the time horizon and market conditions, and developing a well-defined trading strategy based on individual financial goals and risk tolerance.

Can you provide examples of mean reversion trading techniques?

Examples of mean reversion trading techniques include using moving averages to identify overbought or oversold conditions, using Bollinger Bands to identify price deviations, and using RSI and stochastic oscillators to identify potential entry and exit points.

Is mean reversion trading more effective in certain market conditions?

Mean reversion trading is generally more effective in range-bound markets where prices tend to fluctuate around a mean. It may be less effective in trending markets where prices are moving in one direction for an extended period of time.

How can mean reversion be applied to different trading styles?

Mean reversion strategies can be applied to various trading styles, including day trading, swing trading, and forex trading. The choice of indicators and timeframes may vary depending on the trading style.

Which financial markets can mean reversion strategies be applied to?

Mean reversion strategies can be applied to various financial markets, including stocks, forex, and other trading instruments. Traders and investors can use quantitative models and market analysis techniques to identify potential mean reversion opportunities.

How important is market analysis in mean reversion trading?

Market analysis is crucial in mean reversion trading as it helps traders identify potential mean reversion opportunities and make informed trading decisions. Techniques such as regression lines, moving averages, and technical indicators can assist in market analysis.

What is the significance of mean reversion in financial markets?

Mean reversion is a widely used concept in financial markets as it allows traders and investors to capitalise on the tendency of asset prices to return to their long-term average levels. It forms the basis of various trading strategies and indicators.

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